Lithium Aluminate (LiAlO2) Crystals and Substrates

Lithium Aluminate or LiAlO2 is a potential substrate for III-V nitride thin films due to its excellent lattice mismatch to GaN (<0.2% at <100> ), chemical stability at high temperature and cost effective. The lattice parameter of Lithium Dioxogallate (LiGaO2) and Lithium Aluminium Oxide (γ) (LiAlO2) crystal can match with the Gallium Nitride film very well. The mismatch coefficients are 0.2% and 1.4% only for LiGaO2 and LiAlO2, much smaller than that of the common used substrates such as <0001> sapphire (14%), <100> MgO (3%), <0001> SiC (3.5%). The Gallium Nitride film is a very important material for blue, violet, UV and white LED. A substrate material that matches the film to be grown well is very important to get a nice GaN epitaxial film.

Orientations <100>, <110>, <111>
Orientation Tolerance ±0.5°
Standard Size (mm) Ф30,Ф20, 20×20, 15×15,10×10,10×5,10x3mm
Thickness 0.35 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm
Dimensional Tolerance ±0.1mm
Grown Boule 55 mm dia. x 50-80 mm length
Surface Quality 20/10 S/D
Flatness 1/4 Lambda @633nm for thickness less than 2mm
Parallelism 30 arc sec.
Perpendicularity 5 arc minutes
Wavefront Distortion <1/4 Lambda @ 633nm
Micro Roughness (5μmx5μm) Ra:<1Å

Plastic scintillator performance parameters

Plastic scintillator performance parameters with the substrate, scintillating material and the second solute – shift the difference between the different and the difference. Therefore, the variety of plastic scintillators is varied, the performance parameters vary widely.

The emission spectrum of a plastic scintillator is consistent with the emission spectrum of a scintillating substance, whereas the emission spectrum of a scintillator

different. The emission spectrum of the plastic scintillator coincides with that of the wave-shifting agent when the wave-shifting agent is applied.

The light output of plastic scintillator increases with the increase of scintillation material concentration, reaching the extreme value when mass concentration is 1% ~ 4%. Continue to increase the concentration, but the light output decreases. The addition of mass concentration of 0.01% ~ 0.02% of the wave-shift agent can make a sharp increase in light output.

For a long time heavy fluences heavy charged particles or electron radiation, so that the plastic scintillator damage and thus reduce the light output.

Hangzhou Shalom Electro-optics Technology Co., Ltd. is located in the high-tech area of the beautiful touring city Hangzhou, about 300Km from Shanghai city. Besides its beautifulness and long history, Hangzhou is well known for its high-tech industry of IT, optical fiber communications and electro-optics.

Achromatic Waveplates-Laser Component

Achromatic waveplate or retarders is made from two different substrate materials such as crystal quartz and magnesium fluoride. For the single material waveplates the working wavelength is very limited because of the dispersion of the material. While Achromatic Waveplate use two different kinds of material, the dispersions of the birefringence are also different. Hence such waveplate is not sensitive to the wavelength change.

Hangzhou Shalom EO offers the custom achromatic waveplates or retarders upon customer’s request, and the stocked modules are available in fast delivery and low cost.

Optical Lenses

Hangzhou Shalom EO offers a variety of optical lenses: plano-concave, plano-convex, convex- concave, double convex, double concave, cylindrical lenses, rod lenses and ball lenses. Dimensions range from 0.8mm to 300mm. We are able to process the large volume productions, and also deal with the small quantity for your prototypes. A wide range of optical crystals and optical glass materials substrates are available.

SP101 Plastic Scintillators

SP101 Plastic Scintillators are used for Gamma-ray detection. They are widely used in various applications, such as isotope gauge, vehicle radiation detection and environmental radiation monitoring systems.

Application Notes
Isotope gauge
Vehicle radiation detection
Environmental radiation monitoring
Anti-Compton detector

Easy to be processed into various shapes
High transparency
Easy to be processed into large volume scintillators
Short decay time(10^-8~10^-9s)
High mechanical strength
Good vibration resistance
Good impact resistance
Good humidity resistance
Best anti-radiation property


Basic Properties
Softening temperature (℃) 75~80
Density (g/cm3) 1.05
Hygroscopic None
Operating temperature (℃) -40~55
Wavelength of emission max. (nm) 423
Refractive index @ emission max 1.58
Decay time (ns) 2.8
Photoelectron yield (% of NaI(Tl)) (for γ-rays) 20~30

Note: The boules, blanks, polished elements are available.


IR Windows-Infrared Windows Assemblies for Thermal Imaging Inspection

Inspection is necessary for high power and high voltage electric installations to avoid the possible accident, the thermal imagine is found to be the optimal and effective way for this application. In some countries, thermal imagine inspections is compulsory for accident insurance. And in some industrial equipment likethe high temperature metallurgic oven, it is necessary to use the thermal imagine to watch its temperature inside. An infrared windows assembly is needed to be installed on the housing of the electric and industrial equipment as the viewport windows for thermal image camera.


High power and high voltage electric installations, switch cabinet;
High temperature metallurgic oven;
Mineral and petroleum industry.

Design and standard
The windows assembly consists of metal flange, crystals windows and metal protective cover;
The protective cover is fixed by two small magnet nubs;
The whole windows is fixed on the cabinet house by the flange, no screw is needed;
Various types of infrared crystals is available: CaF2; BaF2; Germanium; Sapphire; Silicon; ZnS; ZnSe;
Confirm to the dust tight standard IP67 of NF EN6052.

Materials Used 
Flange Metal
Housing or Cover Metal Materials
Optics CaF2, BaF2, Ge, Sapphire, silicon, ZnSe, ZnS windows
Cover fixing Fixed by Magnet nub
Water and dust ingress IP67 of NF EN60529
Typical Dimensions 
Models Body Diameter Crystals Diameter Viewing Diameter Assembly Thickness
SHIRW-60 84 mm 60mm 55mm 22mm
SHIRW-75 99 mm 75mm 70mm 22mm
SHIRW-100 124 mm 100mm 95mm 22mm

Application notes
Installation steps
Step 1: Calculate and decide the position where the windows would be installed according to the view angle of the thermal imagine camera;
Step 2: Drill a hole according to the size of the windows assemblies;
Step 3: Install the whole windows assemblies;
Step 4: Open the protective cover and make the testing of the inspection.
Select the suitable crystals materials for your applications:
Several factors you should take into consideration during the selection of crystals materials: Wavelength range, environment (temperature, humidity and vibration ect.) and cost. Here is the specification of the materials for your reference.


Hangzhou Shalom EO (or Hangzhou Shalom Electro-optics Technology Co., Ltd.)

Hangzhou Shalom EO (or Hangzhou Shalom Electro-optics Technology Co., Ltd.) is a supplier of crystals, optics and components used in lasers, thermal imaging and scintillation applications since 2010. Most products are custom-made for your special needs.

The products are widely used in the laser systems and instruments, thermal imaging cameras and applications, X-ray equipment, nuclear ray detecting instruments, medical and biological equipment, automation and precision instruments in field of industry, military, scientific research and aerospace.
Hangzhou Shalom scintillation crystals
Here are the products of Shalom EO:
Laser components
Laser crystals (Nd: YAG, Nd: YVO4, Er: YAG, Cr: YAG, CTH: YAG, diffusion bonding crystals, Ti: Sapphire, etc.); Laser optics; Pockels cells and crystals; passive Q-switched crystals; Laser polarizers and wave plates.

Thermal imaging optics
IR lenses for uncooled and cooled thermal imaging cameras, IR windows (Ge, Si, ZnSe, ZnS, CaF2, BaF2), IR optics;
Hangzhou Shalom thermal imaging
Scintillation crystals (NaI Tl, CsI Tl, LYSO Ce, BGO, Ce: YAG, CdWO4, LaBr3 Ce, CeBr3, LaCl3 Ce, etc.), plastic scintillators, Tl) scintillators, NaI (Tl) detectors and NaI (Tl) probes.

Optics, wafers and crystals
Sapphire optics, SAW wafers and crystals, optical grade LiNbO3, LiTaO3, crystalline substrates, optics, filters, filters / waveguides for IPL equipment.

Crystal Optical Research

The study of the propagation of light, and associated phenomena, in crystalline solids. For a simple cubic crystal the atomicarrangement is such that in each direction through the crystal the crystal presents the same optical appearance. The atomsin anisotropic crystals are closer together in some planes through the material than in others. In anisotropic crystals theoptical characteristics are different in different directions. In classical physics the progress of an electromagnetic wavethrough a material involves the periodic displacement of electrons. In anisotropic substances the forces resisting thesedisplacements depend on the displacement direction. Thus the velocity of a light wave is different in different directions andfor different states of polarization. The absorption of the wave may also be different in different directions. See Dichroism, Trichroism

In an isotropic medium the light from a point source spreads out in a spherical shell. The light from a point source embeddedin an anisotropic crystal spreads out in two wave surfaces, one of which travels at a faster rate than the other. Thepolarization of the light varies from point to point over each wave surface, and in any particular direction from the source thepolarization of the two surfaces is opposite. The characteristics of these surfaces can be determined experimentally bymaking measurements on a given crystal.

In the most general case of a transparent anisotropic medium, the dielectric constant is different along each of threeorthogonal axes. This means that when the light vector is oriented along each direction, the velocity of light is different. Onemethod for calculating the behavior of a transparent anisotropic material is through the use of the index ellipsoid, also calledthe reciprocal ellipsoid, optical indicatrix, or ellipsoid of wave normals. This is the surface obtained by plotting the value ofthe refractive index in each principal direction for a linearly polarized light vector lying in that direction (see illustration). Thedifferent indices of refraction, or wave velocities associated with a given propagation direction, are then given by sectionsthrough the origin of the coordinates in which the index ellipsoid is drawn. These sections are ellipses, and the major andminor axes of the ellipse represent the fast and slow axes for light proceeding along the normal to the plane of the ellipse.The length of the axes represents the refractive indices for the fast and slow wave, respectively. The most asymmetric typeof ellipsoid has three unequal axes. It is a general rule in crystallography that no property of a crystal will have lesssymmetry than the class in which the crystal belongs.

Optics,Wafers and Crystals

Characteristics of plastic scintillator

Plastic scintillators belong to organic scintillators, but not organic crystal scintillators. It can be used for the detection of alpha, beta, gamma, fast neutrons, protons, cosmic rays and fission fragments. It is easy to transparent body into very large, easy processing into various shapes, with no deliquescence, stable performance, radiation resistance, short decay time and flashing advantages of low price, is a kind of scintillator is widely used today.

A, simple in production, low in price, easy to process into various shapes, such as column, piece, ring, rectangle, well shape, tube, film, filaments, particles and so on.

B, high transparency, good light transmission performance, can be made into large volume scintillator.

C, scintillation attenuation time is short, suitable for nanosecond time measurement and high intensity radiation measurement.

D, stable performance, high mechanical strength, vibration resistance, impact resistance, moisture resistance, no need for encapsulation, light saving 8~10a luminescence efficiency has no obvious change.

E, radiation resistance in various scintillator first, can be used for high radiation field emission, high exposure rate.

F, softening temperature is low, can not be used under high temperature conditions.

G, soluble in aromatic ketones and solvent, ethanol, dilute acid, dilute alkali and very little impact on it.

H, poor energy resolution, generally only for strength measurement

Optical and Laser Components

Optical and Laser Components

1. Flowtubes, Monoblocks and Specular Reflectors for Lamp- and Diode-based Pump Chambers.

Flowtubes and Monoblocks are an essential component of the flashlamp-pumped pump chambers; they carry out the following functions:

– Provide flow-channel for cooling liquid;

– Absorb (filter-out) undesired UV-radiation, reducing heat load, thermal lensing effect and protesting the active medium from long-term solarization;

– Provide internal support for BaSO4 reflectors;

– Blocking lateral stimulated emission, which can depopulate the laser rod and significantly reduce amount of the extracted energy in Q-switched mode. For the Q-switched Nd:YAG Laser Samarium-doped Glass is the material of choice, because it attenuates lateral depumping effects, thus avoiding super luminescence phenomena and absorbing undesired UV radiation.

Cerium Glass and Europium Quartz Glass are also interesting doping materials, because they absorb undesired UV-radiation and can additionally re-emit this energy in the useful spectral range. For free-running lasers, Duran and Quartz Glass are the materials of choice for fabricating the flowtubes, while undoped-YAG and Sapphire can also be used when harsh conditions warrant.

Flowtubes and monoblocks are machined out of a block of glass with highly polished interior and exterior surfaces. The channels containing the laser rod and flashlamps are deep-bored with tight control of dimensions and tolerances on parallelism and perpendicularity. In case of Sm- or Eu-doped glass, the monoblocks are subjected to ion-exchange strengthening in accordance with instructions of glass manufacturer.

All shapes and configurations of monoblocks are available including multi-channel cylindrical, ellipsoid, shotgun, etc. sections with flat or indented end-surfaces for reliable sealing. Please contact us with your specific requirements.

The monoblocks can be used as part of diffuse pump chambers with BaSO4 reflectors. In addition, the polished exterior cylindrical or elliptical surfaces can be coated with Cu/Ni-protected Silver or Gold coating to form the high efficiency Specular Reflector, with some standard configurations available on a short notice.

Presence of strong thermo-optical effects in high power diode pumped lasers presents a challenge in obtaining high output power with low-order modes. In various Nd:YAG laser configurations like rod, slab or disk lasers thermally-induced refractive index changes lead to lensing, aberrations and birefringence. For power scaling of diode pumped solid state lasers the uniform pumping configuration and effective thermal management are required.

For better pumping and cooling management of diode-pumped solid-state lasers, our preferred vendor has developed a range of state of the art Sapphire and Fused Silica reflector flowtubes for axial uniform pumping. The barrel surface of flowtubes is coated by Cu/Ni-protected, highly reflective Gold layer. For uniform distribution of laser diodes pumping radiation within laser rod, multiple configurations of flowtubes have been developed. Due to high manufacturing precision combined with innovative know-how, these reflectors demonstrated reduced thermally-induced effects of lensing and aberration, and improved output power and optical-to-optical efficiency of the laser.