Scintillators >> Scintillation Crystal Materials >> CaF2(Eu)
The scintillating crystals and plastic scintillators, substrates, scintillation detectors and arrays are provided, a variety module of the NaI(Tl) crystals and detectors, high quality arrays of LYSO(Ce), CsI(Tl) or CdWO4 are offered. Our scintillating materials include: LYSO(Ce), YSO(Ce), LSO, BGO, YAP(Ce), YAG(Ce), LuAG(Ce), CsI(Na), NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), CaF2(Eu), BaF2 and plastic scintillators. These products are widely used in X-ray detections, PET machines, atomic and nuclear ray and electron ray detections, cut and polished components and arrays and PMT assembly detectors are available for your applications.
Caf2(eu) scintillator as a efficient scintillation crystal, has been widely used in the application of low energy nuclear physics experiment, nuclear reactor detecting, radiation monitor and radioactivity medical science diagnoses.
- Relatively high light output
- High shock resistance
Growth method: Bridgman
Maximum dimension: ∅60 mm x 120 mm
Available items: single crystal
Note: The crystal boules, blanks and polished elements are available.
- Radioactivity medical science diagnoses
Many different properties of a nonlinear crystal can be important for an application e.g. in nonlinear frequency conversion:
The chromatic dispersion and birefringence properties determine the possibilities for phase matching and the phase-matching bandwidth, angular acceptance (for critical phase matching), etc.
The magnitude of the effective nonlinear coefficient deff, which depends on the nonlinear tensor components and on the phase-matching configuration, is important particularly if the achievable optical intensities are low.
Normally, the crystal material should have a high optical transparency for all wavelengths involved.
Additional properties can be relevant for a comparison:
the material’s potential to be periodically poled to achieve quasi-phase matching
linear absorption, which can cause heating at high optical power levels, so that the phase matching is disturbed, and thermal lensing may occur
the resistance against optical damage, gray tracking, photodarkening, green-induced infrared absorption, and the like
the resistance against photorefractive effects (which are often called photorefractive damage, even though this is usually reversible)
the availability of crystals with consistently good quality, large size and a reasonable price
the ease of fabricating high-quality anti-reflection coatings on the crystals
the chemical durability; e.g., some crystal materials are hygroscopic, others undergo chemical changes when heated in a vacuum chamber for application of a dielectric coating
The choice of the most suitable crystal material for a given application is often far from trivial; it should involve the consideration of many aspects. For example, a high nonlinearity for frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses does not help if the interaction length is strongly limited by a large group velocity mismatch and the low damage threshold limits the applicable optical intensities. Also, it can be highly desirable to use a crystal material which can be critically phase-matched at room temperature, because noncritical phase matching often involves the operation of the crystal in a temperature-stabilized crystal oven.
There are many far infrared (FIR) units on the market which is very confusing to the public. This page will explain how they came into existence and the differences between them. This is important so as not to spend a lot of money on something that will not give optimal far infrared benefits as expected and desired, especially if intended for specific use as thermal therapy.
The unit is called the Far Infrared Dome. The traditional sauna companies took note of this far infrared ‘dry’ sauna and shortly thereafter followed suit by incorporating far infrared heat into their existing set-up.
Source of Far Infrared Rays and the difference between wet and dry heat:
Traditional saunas introduced carbon coated metal rods or carbon coated ceramic plates into their existing sauna units to generate far infrared heat and then renamed and marketed them as far infrared sauna even though they still remain a traditional sauna generating a hot ‘wet’ heat.
A traditional sauna uses heat to warm the air, which in turn heats up your body. This is a ‘wet’ heat which therefore requires you to remove your clothes.
A far infrared sauna heats your body directly, without warming the air around you. Far Infrared is a ‘dry’ heat, clothing is optional. There is no sweating involved – toxins are released through the urine and feces.
None of the traditional ‘infrared sauna’ (or the copycat far infrared sauna domes) use the same advanced unique patented crystal chip surface as the Far Infrared Dome which emits 100% pure far infrared. Most far infrared saunas emit 40% to around 90% far infrared (very few units reach 90%). Some far infrared sauna units generate too much wet heat and thereby dramatically reduce the actual far infrared emission level.
As a leading supplier of sapphire optics, Red Optronics supply a wide variety of custom sapphire optics, include windows, lens, prisms for a wide range of applications. Our monthly output of conventional sapphire products exceed 10K pcs a month. We also supply simple and complex optics or optical assemblies for prototype and small production volumes.
Sapphire is a single crystal aluminum oxide (Al2O3). It is one of the hardest materials. Sapphire has good transmission characteristics over the visible, and near IR spectrum. It exhibits high mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal conductivity and thermal stability. It is often used as window materials in specific field such as space technology where scratch or high temperature resistance is required.
Sapphire window is made from synthetic sapphire and can be made much thinner than BK7 windows.. It is highly durable with a wide transmission range. Sapphire window is best suited for scratch resistance application that requires better transmission over a wide range spectrum.