Main elements of laser crystal

The activated ions used in the laser crystal(Hangzhou Shalom Laser Components) are mainly transition metal ions and trivalent rare earth ions. The optical electron of the transition metal ion is the 3d electron in the outer layer. In the crystal, the optical electron is directly affected by the surrounding crystal field, so the spectral characteristics of the crystal of different structure types are greatly different. The 4f electrons of the trivalent rare earth ions are shielded by the outer electrons of 5s and 5p, so that the effect of the crystal field is weakened, but the perturbation of the crystal field makes the 4f electron transition which is originally forbidden possible, resulting in narrow band absorption and fluorescence. Spectral line. Therefore, the spectrum of trivalent rare earth ions in different crystals is not as large as that of transition metal ions. The matrix crystals used in laser crystals are mainly oxides and fluorides. As a matrix crystal, in addition to its physicochemical properties, it is easy to grow large-size crystals with good optical uniformity, and it is cheap, but consider its compatibility with activated ions, such as the radius of the matrix cation and activated ions, and the electronegativity. Sex and valence should be as close as possible. In addition, the effect of the host crystal field on the activation ion spectrum is also considered. For some special-purpose matrix crystals, the addition of activated ions can directly produce lasers with certain characteristics. For example, in some nonlinear crystals, the activated ions generate laser light and can be directly converted into harmonic output through the matrix crystal. More used: Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO4

The origin and development of laser components

The origin and development of laser components

Hangzhou Shalom EO provides the crystals, optics and components used in the lasers, which includes: Laser crystalsnonlinear crystalsopticsPPLN crystalspockels cells and passive Q-switches, waveplates and polarizing optics. Beside the general lasers, optics and Components for femto-second lasers, CO2 lasers, deep UV lasers, ring laser gyro-scope are available. And the high precision optics for demanding applications are offered.

The light source required for fiber optic communication in laser devices should be a high-speed modulated light source to carry large-capacity information. Such as lasers and LEDs. The so-called “modulation” is to change the intensity of light, etc., according to the information to be transmitted, to carry information.

The light source required for fiber-optic communication should be a high-speed modulated light source to carry large-capacity information. Such as lasers and LEDs. The so-called “modulation” is to change the intensity of light, etc., according to the information to be transmitted, to carry information. In 1960, Maimen invented the ruby ​​laser. The difference between laser and ordinary light is that the laser has a very simple optical frequency and has a linear line. In optical, it is called coherent light, and it is most suitable for light source of optical fiber communication. The usual light frequency is very messy and it contains many wavelengths. The usual light frequency is very messy and it contains many wavelengths. The characteristic of coherent light is that the light energy is concentrated, and the divergence angle is small, which is approximately parallel light. After the invention of the ruby ​​laser, various lasers were born: gas lasers, such as helium neon lasers; solid-state lasers, such as YAG yttrium aluminum garnet lasers; chemical lasers; dye lasers. Among them, the semiconductor laser is most suitable for the light source of optical fiber communication. Its small size and high efficiency, its wavelength is suitable for the low loss window of the fiber. However, the manufacturing process of semiconductor lasers is very complicated, and it is necessary to epitaxially grow five layers of doped semiconductor on a substrate material of extremely high purity and defect, and then lithographically illuminate the micron-sized optical waveguide thereon, which has a difficulty compared with the optical fiber. Nothing more than that. In the late 1970s, a semiconductor laser with a long working life at room temperature was finally produced. In 1976, the world’s first practical fiber-optic communication line was established in Atlanta, USA. At this time, the semiconductor laser has not passed, and the light source is a semiconductor light-emitting tube. In the early 1980s, single-mode fibers and lasers were mature, and the superiority of fiber-optic communication capacity was gradually brought into play.
The light emitted by the semiconductor laser is pure, the energy is concentrated, and the beam is very thin. It can efficiently shoot into a single-mode fiber with a core diameter of only 8 microns. Today’s high-speed fiber-optic communication systems use semiconductor lasers as light sources.

Hangzhou Shalom CaF2(Eu) Scintillators

Scintillators >> Scintillation Crystal Materials >> CaF2(Eu)

The scintillating crystals and plastic scintillators, substrates, scintillation detectors and arrays are provided, a variety module of the NaI(Tl) crystals and detectors, high quality arrays of LYSO(Ce), CsI(Tl) or CdWO4 are offered. Our scintillating materials include: LYSO(Ce), YSO(Ce), LSO, BGO, YAP(Ce), YAG(Ce), LuAG(Ce), CsI(Na), NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), CaF2(Eu), BaF2 and plastic scintillators. These products are widely used in X-ray detections, PET machines, atomic and nuclear ray and electron ray detections, cut and polished components and arrays and PMT assembly detectors are available for your applications.

Caf2(eu) scintillator as a efficient scintillation crystal, has been widely used in the application of low energy nuclear physics experiment, nuclear reactor detecting, radiation monitor and radioactivity medical science diagnoses.


  • Relatively high light output
  • Inert
  • High shock resistance


Growth method: Bridgman

Maximum dimension: ∅60 mm x 120 mm

Available items: single crystal

Basic Properties

 Note: The crystal boules, blanks and polished elements are available.

Application Notes

  • P-Detector
  • Radioactivity medical science diagnoses




Relevant Aspects for the Choice of Nonlinear Crystals

Many different properties of a nonlinear crystal can be important for an application e.g. in nonlinear frequency conversion:

The chromatic dispersion and birefringence properties determine the possibilities for phase matching and the phase-matching bandwidth, angular acceptance (for critical phase matching), etc.
The magnitude of the effective nonlinear coefficient deff, which depends on the nonlinear tensor components and on the phase-matching configuration, is important particularly if the achievable optical intensities are low.
Normally, the crystal material should have a high optical transparency for all wavelengths involved.

Additional properties can be relevant for a comparison:

the material’s potential to be periodically poled to achieve quasi-phase matching
linear absorption, which can cause heating at high optical power levels, so that the phase matching is disturbed, and thermal lensing may occur
the resistance against optical damage, gray tracking, photodarkening, green-induced infrared absorption, and the like
the resistance against photorefractive effects (which are often called photorefractive damage, even though this is usually reversible)
the availability of crystals with consistently good quality, large size and a reasonable price
the ease of fabricating high-quality anti-reflection coatings on the crystals
the chemical durability; e.g., some crystal materials are hygroscopic, others undergo chemical changes when heated in a vacuum chamber for application of a dielectric coating
The choice of the most suitable crystal material for a given application is often far from trivial; it should involve the consideration of many aspects. For example, a high nonlinearity for frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses does not help if the interaction length is strongly limited by a large group velocity mismatch and the low damage threshold limits the applicable optical intensities. Also, it can be highly desirable to use a crystal material which can be critically phase-matched at room temperature, because noncritical phase matching often involves the operation of the crystal in a temperature-stabilized crystal oven.

Far Infrared Dome

There are many far infrared (FIR) units on the market which is very confusing to the public. This page will explain how they came into existence and the differences between them. This is important so as not to spend a lot of money on something that will not give optimal far infrared benefits as expected and desired, especially if intended for specific use as thermal therapy.

The unit is called the Far Infrared Dome. The traditional sauna companies took note of this far infrared ‘dry’ sauna and shortly thereafter followed suit by incorporating far infrared heat into their existing set-up.

Source of Far Infrared Rays and the difference between wet and dry heat:
Traditional saunas introduced carbon coated metal rods or carbon coated ceramic plates into their existing sauna units to generate far infrared heat and then renamed and marketed them as far infrared sauna even though they still remain a traditional sauna generating a hot ‘wet’ heat.

A traditional sauna uses heat to warm the air, which in turn heats up your body. This is a ‘wet’ heat which therefore requires you to remove your clothes.

A far infrared sauna heats your body directly, without warming the air around you. Far Infrared is a ‘dry’ heat, clothing is optional. There is no sweating involved – toxins are released through the urine and feces.

None of the traditional ‘infrared sauna’ (or the copycat far infrared sauna domes) use the same advanced unique patented crystal chip surface as the Far Infrared Dome which emits 100% pure far infrared. Most far infrared saunas emit 40% to around 90% far infrared (very few units reach 90%). Some far infrared sauna units generate too much wet heat and thereby dramatically reduce the actual far infrared emission level.

Sapphire Optics

As a leading supplier of sapphire optics, Red Optronics supply a wide variety of custom sapphire optics, include windows, lens, prisms for a wide range of applications. Our monthly output of conventional sapphire products exceed 10K pcs a month. We also supply simple and complex optics or optical assemblies for prototype and small production volumes.


Sapphire is a single crystal aluminum oxide (Al2O3). It is one of the hardest materials. Sapphire has good transmission characteristics over the visible, and near IR spectrum. It exhibits high mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal conductivity and thermal stability. It is often used as window materials in specific field such as space technology where scratch or high temperature resistance is required.

Sapphire Window

Sapphire window is made from synthetic sapphire and can be made much thinner than BK7 windows..  It is highly durable with a wide transmission range. Sapphire window is best suited for scratch resistance application that requires better transmission over a wide range spectrum.

NaI(Tl) Detectors-SD1105 NaI(Tl) detector

SD1105 NaI(Tl) detector is a high efficiency scintillation detector consisting of a NaI(Tl) crystal in an Aluminum housing, a photomultiplier tube, an internal magnetic/light shield, a high-voltage power supply(HVPS), a voltage divider and preamplifier circuit board, it can directly output the negative pulse signal. SD1105 NaI(Tl) detectors have a proven record of long term reliability and stability. Typical energy resolutions are ≤8%fwhm at 662keV.

Matters need attention:

1) Each detector is thoroughly tested before shipping and comes with a 12 months guarantee, we are responsible for the repair, replacement within the warranty period, and provide technical support. Please don’t disassemble the detector by yourself, in case of any questions please contact us.

2) The packaged product allows to transport by cars, trains, airplanes, ships and other transportation vehicles, transportation should prevent severe shock, severe vibration, rain and so on.

3) Scintillation detector should be stored in a cool, dry environment.

4) Please pay attention to the input voltage value and polarity, improper input voltage will lead to the detector does not work and even damage.

5) The cable should be correctly connected to the connector, incorrect connection may lead to detector damage.

Laser Windows

Laser Components >> Laser Optics and Components >> Laser Windows

Laser Windows are used to provide a high degree of transmission of specified wavelengths for use in laser applications or safety needs. Laser Windows may be designed for either laser transmission or laser safety purposes. In safety applications, Laser Windows are designed to provide safe, observable surface through which to view a laser or laser system. Laser Windows may also be used to isolate a laser beam, reflecting or absorbing all other wavelengths. Several varieties of Laser Windows are available for both laser transmission or laser blocking applications.

Hangzhou Shalom EO offers a wide range of Laser Windows suited for many laser transmission or laser safety needs. Laser Line Windows provide exceptional transmission of desired wavelengths while effectively reflecting unwanted wavelengths. High power versions of Laser Line Windows are also available for higher energy laser applications where higher damage thresholds are needed. Acrylic Laser Windows are ideal for laser applications that use Nd:YAG, CO2, KTP or Argon-Ion laser sources. Acrylic Laser Windows may be easily cut to fit into any shape required. Laser Speckle Reducers are also available for reducing speckle noise in laser systems.

Athermal Lenses For Long-Wave Infrared Systems

Due to advances in material and manufacturing technologies, the vast majority of lenses used on long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras are simple: One- or two- element designs with an emphasis on low-cost manufacturing. One effect of this is that most of these cameras are supplied without any means for the user to focus them. This means that the lens must stay in focus over a broad range of temperatures. Since the standard temperatures range for use outdoors is -40°C (really cold) to +85°C (much too hot!), this can provide some interesting design challenges.

The Problem

Most materials have properties that change with temperature, and all the materials that can be used to make lens for the LWIR waveband have properties that change. For optical performance, there are two relevant properties to consider: the thermal expansion (α), and the way the refractive index changes with temperature (dn/dT). The refractive index (n) defines the optical power of a lens —he higher the index, the stronger the lens — and this changes with wavelength. Figure 1 shows how these combine to cause a change (Δs) in the distance from the lens to the focal plane.


Hangzhou Shalom Athermal IR Lenses

CsI(Tl) Scintillator Array

Scintillator CsI(Tl)’s maximum of the broad emission situated at 550nm which allows Si-photodiodes to be used to detect the emission. The use of a scintillator-photodiode pair makes it possible to diminish significantly the size of the detecting system (due to the use of photodiode instead of PMT), to do without high-voltage supply source, and to use detecting systems in magnetic fields. The high radiation resistance (up to 10 Gy) allows CsI(TI) to be used in nuclear, medium, radiation detection and high-energy physics etc. Special treatment ensures obtaining of CsI(TI) scintillators with a low afterglow (less than 0.1% after 5 ms) for the use in safety inspection and imaging.