Main elements of laser crystal

The activated ions used in the laser crystal(Hangzhou Shalom Laser Components) are mainly transition metal ions and trivalent rare earth ions. The optical electron of the transition metal ion is the 3d electron in the outer layer. In the crystal, the optical electron is directly affected by the surrounding crystal field, so the spectral characteristics of the crystal of different structure types are greatly different. The 4f electrons of the trivalent rare earth ions are shielded by the outer electrons of 5s and 5p, so that the effect of the crystal field is weakened, but the perturbation of the crystal field makes the 4f electron transition which is originally forbidden possible, resulting in narrow band absorption and fluorescence. Spectral line. Therefore, the spectrum of trivalent rare earth ions in different crystals is not as large as that of transition metal ions. The matrix crystals used in laser crystals are mainly oxides and fluorides. As a matrix crystal, in addition to its physicochemical properties, it is easy to grow large-size crystals with good optical uniformity, and it is cheap, but consider its compatibility with activated ions, such as the radius of the matrix cation and activated ions, and the electronegativity. Sex and valence should be as close as possible. In addition, the effect of the host crystal field on the activation ion spectrum is also considered. For some special-purpose matrix crystals, the addition of activated ions can directly produce lasers with certain characteristics. For example, in some nonlinear crystals, the activated ions generate laser light and can be directly converted into harmonic output through the matrix crystal. More used: Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO4

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